However, searching through the city and region portals, using key words such as “Variante di Citta di Torino” (variants of the Turin city), revealed several key Turin city documents which were translated and properly analysed in narrating the case. Surely, Juventus’ threat is not comparable to that of an American’s team, either in terms of magnitude or in terms of Italian football’s organisational structure. Globalisation, stadiums and the consumerist city. Available at: https://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CCkQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftorino.pronatura.it%2Fdo.download_attach.php%3Fid%3D31&ei=Ib2eVJ_yE4GxUcD5gfgK&usg=AFQjC NELukfkJCjlqzsweNgxXlWw4fPcAQ (accessed 12 May 2015). In October 2009, following earlier deliberations, with the advent of the global economic crisis, Bill 2800 was submitted to the Italian Parliament. Thirdly, this case study serves as a pilot for at least Italy and possibly other European countries, given recent trends in the demand for new football stadia. Juventus Stadium Seating Plan and Ticket Categories. Juventus’s new stadium is the first to be privately held by a team in Italy and it opens the way for a different manner of thinking about the relationship between the club, fans and the city it calls home. Matteoli L. 2002. Paper prepared for Workshop 6 “Institutional Innovations in Local Democracy” ECPR JOINT SESSIONS Turin, Italy, 22-27 March. Remaking the Italian Economy. Non facile, ma fattibile: «Tutto è possibile con le tecniche di oggi, non è una cosa semplicissima ma fattibile – ha proseguito Zavanella -. Paramio JL, Buraimo B, Campos C. 2008. I wish to express my gratitude to the Editor, Professor Jen Nelles, for her admirable work on processing the review of my manuscript. John and Cole (1998), using a comparative analysis of urban politics in Leeds, UK and Lille, France conclude that non-institutional factors promoting regimes are local business ownership, business integration, large metropolitan context, and economic advantage or disadvantage. 20How important is the Italian extra-urban institutional structure – e.g. Creative Commons 3.0 – by-nc-nd, except for those images whose rights are reserved. Finally, Blanco’s (2015) study of Barcelona shows that URT can help overcome the networks/neoliberalism dualism, by showing how different coalitions mobilise different sets of resources over time and in different policy arenas. Ecco tutte le informazioni per acquistare i biglietti di Juventus-Genoa. La Juve guarda avanti, oltre il campo di gioco. Yin RK. It was built on the site of the Stadio delle Alpi, and opened in the summer of 2011. The project aimed at demolishing a recently renovated municipal stadium in Turin, Italy and building a new one for Juventus FC. Burdett R, Colantonio A, Alaimo C, Taylor M. 2010. Juventus, unhappy with the delle Alpi, began to pressure the city for a new stadium unsuccessfully, threatening to relocate. 50Juventus had other allies with potential interests in the project, using either economic or cognitive resources - that include experience, intelligence, competence and task-relevant knowledge. Elected in 1993, with new mayoral powers, according to Law 81/1993, Castellani had realized that the transformation of Turin would require the involvement of a wide range of social, economic, political and cultural actors in the city (Burdett, 2010). [En ligne], 12 | 2013, mis en ligne le 31 mai 2013, consulté le 27 février 2014. Allies using cognitive resources included five engineering and architectural groups (Migliavacca 2012). owned by FIAT, as well as Juventus’ fans offered symbolic support (Palvarini and Tosi 2013b) – e.g. 2005. the Bill sought to encourage construction of new stadia and the refurbishment of existing facilities through two kinds of measures: simplifying administrative procedures in order to obtain building permits quickly, and providing financial incentives to the proposer. To understand the urban politics around Juventus’ new football stadium in the city of Turin requires tracing first the city’s local political dynamics within the prevailing extra-urban institutional structure. Stadiums as studios: How the media shape space in the new Juventus Stadium. a regime’s longevity and the identity of its nongovernmental members (see Van Ostaaijen 2010), it is now generally recognized that urban regime coalitions are not temporary, their nongovernmental partners are not limited to businesspersons, collaboration is based on social production, and policy agendas are identifiable. To what extent can American urban politics theories explain this outcome as well as help towards relevant future research? Available at: http://www.cafebabel.co.uk/society/article/keeping-turins-fiat-factory-in-the-family-post-industrial-italy.html (accessed 2 November 2017). The Juventus Stadium was opened six years ago today and the statistics show the huge boost it made to their club coffers. The progress of the Integrated Stadium: European Experiences from the New Multifuntional Format, Master of Science in Urban Planning and Territorial Policies, School of Architecture and Society, Polytechnic University of Milano (in Italian). Supporters laud the positive overall impacts to the city, including substantial savings for public finances and higher revenues for sports clubs (Bennett 2012), enhanced security for spectators and improved international attractiveness (Giulianotti and Robertson 2012). Professors Clarence Stone of George Washington University, Costas Spirou of Georgia College & State University, Gilles Pinson of Sciences Po Bordeaux and Assistant Professor Elliot Tretter of Calgary University helped with conceptual issues. sports stadium infrastructure and urban development in the United Kingdom, Environment and Planning A 33(5): 845-861. Delft: Eburon Academic Publishers. So, the prosecution has covered up everything. The Municipality, the Region and bank foundations supported the other two axes. Pinson’s (2012) study suggests that the traditional relationship between the French central state and local political actors is becoming inappropriate, giving way to the mode of governance suggested by URT. Material supplied by the known global law firm DLA Piper, Italy, as well as private communications with the firm’s staff assisted the analysis greatly. 4Urban Regime Theory (URT) has dominated American urban political theory, since Clarence Stone’s seminal work on Atlanta. Email: nilekakis@gmail.com. Stadion avattiin 8. syyskuuta 2011 juuri ennen Serie A -kauden 2011–2012 alkua. For many Gino Zavanella is the face of Italian sports architecture. Scholars such as Davies (2002, 2003) and Wood (2004), among others, are critical about the value of US urban theories in explaining European urban affairs. Juventus Football Club S.p.A. - Via Druento, 175 - 10151 Turin - ItalySubscribed Capital € 11.406.986,56 - Companies Register, Fiscal Code and VAT number 00470470014 - REA 394963, Photography and content © 2017 Juventus Football Club S.p.A. - All rights reserved, Juventus Official Online Store Customer Care: store-support@juventus.com - Tel. PNT’s Secretary stated: There was a lot of formal opposition to the project. 27To understand the urban politics around Juventus’ new football stadium in the city of Turin requires tracing first the city’s local political dynamics within the prevailing extra-urban institutional structure. Pinson G. 2002. Many thanks also to several people for their precious help in making the paper publishable. Stone’s (1989) study on Atlanta makes abundant reference to opposition from various segments of the city’s society, summarized typically in (p. 38): To actually carry out a program required an ability to keep resources mobilized over a period of years in the face of considerable resistance. Obiettivo consolidare il primato in classifica di campionato. Dipende da che tipo di ampliamento si vuole fare, un conto è un aumento di 20.000 posti, un altro di New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. It is also commercially known as the Allianz Stadium since July 2017. The Seats Were Great And We Will Book The Tickets Again from onlineticketexpress.com Website! 19Two municipal architects, the director of the International Commission for the Protection of the Alps (ICPA), the secretary of Pro Natura Torino (PNT), a former city commissioner responsible for managing the construction project of Stadio delle Alpi, a Polytechnic School graduate with a thesis on the stadium, and a notorious local athlete and activist received this instrument by email. Scattoni P, Falco E. 2011. Bennett and Spirou (2006) question URT’s ability to explain the case of Chicago’s MLB stadium, because the local regime shifted the final decision-making to the state. Most clubs participating in. Finally, Blanco’s (2015) study of Barcelona shows that URT can help overcome the networks/neoliberalism dualism, by showing how different coalitions mobilise different sets of resources over time and in different policy arenas. Also, several social and environmental associations tried to oppose the project, but again they did not succeed, Beyond objections to altering the use of an agricultural area near the Alps, PNT contended that self-financing by Juventus was a myth, as the idea is always to use public resources such as the Comitato Olimpico Nazionale Italiano (CONI). Even with Juventus’ ‘departure’, Torino FC would still represent Turin in. Partnerships vs Regimes: Why Regime Theory Cannot Explain Urban Coalitions in the UK, Journal of Urban Affairs 25(3): 253–269. 2015. Juventus Football Club S.p.A. Available at: www.geocities.ws/juventusfootball/news/archived99/111099.htm (accessed 12 February 2016). Juventus’ new stadium in Turin was the product of that regime, which had a direct connection with the club’s owners and its actions were amply facilitated by Italy’s extra-urban institutional structure. Juventus Football Club S.p.A. According to this ruling – 1257 Section V – a transfer is considered legitimate when the football team plays in the top division and it is reasonably believed that the ‘public interest’ is better served if the stadium is used by the team, that mostly provides utility for the local population. Dipende da che tipo di ampliamento si vuole fare, un conto è un aumento di 20.000 posti, un altro di Material supplied by the known global law firm DLA Piper, Italy, as well as private communications with the firm’s staff assisted the analysis greatly. Nondiconad, a large Italian mass retail cooperative, acquired from Juventus the rights to manage the commercial area adjacent to the stadium and helped it defray some of the construction costs. The Director of the International Commission for the Protection of the Alps. 34During a two-year long campaign that began in 1998, Castellani consulted with the city’s most important actors to inform of his plan to revitalize Turin. Castelanni’s coalition combined all the features of a US-style urban regime. US Concepts, British Cities and the Limits of Cross-national Applications, Urban Studies 41(11): 2103-2118. Stadion avattiin 8. syyskuuta 2011 juuri ennen Serie A -kauden 2011–2012 alkua. Public Dollars, Private Stadiums: The Battle over Building Sports Stadiums. So, the prosecution has covered up everything. On Sundays they went to see (the Fiat-owned football team) Juventus. Explaining “Power to”: Incubation and Agenda Building in an Urban Regime, Urban Affairs Review, DOI: 10.1177/1078087415598579. Available at: www.dlapiperrealworld.com (accessed 15 February 2016). This was done because Juventus did not accept the obligation to use always the Delle Alpi Stadium (interview, 3 March 2016). History and description Allianz Stadium, previously known as Juventus Stadium, replaced Juventus’ old Stadio Delle Alpi, which had only been the home of the club since 1990. OpenEdition member – Published with Lodel – Administration only, You will be redirected to OpenEdition Search. 1999. It was built on the site of the Stadio delle Alpi, and opened in the summer of 2011. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. While Law 142 gives provinces the power to approve city plans in cooperation with the regions, the law’s most critical provision is its laying the bases for a large number of communal activities to be performed through autonomous forms of organisation. Using political/legal resources, the ‘gatekeepers’ included the cities of Turin and Venaria Reale, the Turin Province and the Piedmont Region. Regimes: Why Regime Theory Cannot Explain Urban Coalitions in the UK, Public Dollars, Private Stadiums: The Battle over Building Sports Stadiums. According to this ruling – 1257 Section V – a transfer is considered legitimate when the football team plays in the top division and it is reasonably believed that the ‘public interest’ is better served if the stadium is used by the team, that mostly provides utility for the local population. The family is also owner of Juventus FC since the early 1920s (Burdett et al 2010). 46Between November 2008 and August 2011, the projects were advanced and completed quickly by Italian standards, thanks to the use of simplified planning procedures followed by the city, which were only formally approved by the Provincial authority as regards safety standards. Juventus tickets are now available for 2020/21 matches in the Italian Serie A, Champions League Round of 16 1st Leg, Champions League Round of 16 2nd Leg … Sometimes sport teams threaten to leave their cities unless they build new stadia for them. O’Leary N. 2009. Allies using cognitive resources included five engineering and architectural groups (Migliavacca 2012). Those governing decisions or public actions are not outcomes of hierarchical government structures but rather actions of coalitions of forces engaged in ‘governance’. Farnham Surrey: Ashgate (149-168). It is home to the club Juventus FC. Another angle. the election of politically non-professional, ordinary civil society people. European leagues follow the promotion-and-relegation system, which allows free entry of teams to a sports league upon achievement, so the cartel problem is non-existent. Political Leadership and Stadium. Although it did not turn into a law due to protracted discussions in Parliament. 51Among the project’s opponents was a short list of small agencies and groups including the Centro Sportivo Italiano, Radio Flash, independent leftist groups, and others, with a minimal, almost unnoticeable, impact. For the first time in its history Juventus Stadium will change its name. The second is much more complex, requiring also the opinion of the Region. Policy change without metamorphosis: The 1993-2011 urban regime in Turin. Find Juventus fixtures, results, top scorers, transfer rumours and player profiles, with exclusive photos and video highlights. Mossberger K, Stoker G. 2001. Juventus, unhappy with the delle Alpi, began to pressure the city for a new stadium unsuccessfully, threatening to relocate. From modern to postmodern: The development of football stadia in Europe. It is also the stronghold of automaker FIAT, which has earned it the label ‘Italian Detroit’. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. However, the evidence represents an additional step in testing the cross-national application of American urban politics theories and in contributing to the relevant debate on sports stadia specifically. The council has always voted “yes” to every request of Juventus. 58The argument of this work is not that the evidence is necessarily reflective of such politics in all European cities. Burdett R, Colantonio A, Alaimo C, Taylor M. 2010. laws, regulations, court rulings – that determine the status, power and functional capacities of city governments and other autonomous bodies (Province, Metropolitan Area, Region), in the formation and effectiveness of urban regimes and their agenda that includes new private sport stadia projects? Club: Juventus FC | Opening: 2011 | Capacity: 41,000 seats. For many Gino Zavanella is the face of Italian sports architecture. Bennett L, Spirou C. 2006. Urban Regimes and Local Governance in Britain and France Policy Adaption and Coordination in Leeds and Lille, Urban Affairs Review, 33(3): 382-404. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. Given this and also that Turin’s administration was able to secure the support of supra-city governments for the deal informally, regime theory, even in its classic form, positions itself as an effective approach for studying future European cases in countries with similar extra-urban institutions. Those governing decisions or public actions are not outcomes of hierarchical government structures but rather actions of coalitions of forces engaged in ‘governance’. 45Until 2006, as Stadio Communale was being renovated into Stadio Olimpico to host the 2006 Winter Olympics, the delle Alpi was used for matches of Juventus FC and Torino FC and after the Olympics it was closed down. League Structure & Stadium Rent Seeking - The Antitrust Role Reconsidered, Florida Law Review 65: 1-72. They argue that, rather than simply placing structural limits on city officials, extra-urban institutions provide opportunities to local agents for advancing their policy goals, by showing how city-level actors sought extra-urban institutional support towards these projects. London: LSE Next Urban Economy Series. Sapotichne and Smith (2012) further explore this view in their study of two. The resolution stated, among other things, the city’s commitment to allow both Juventus FC and Torino FC to hold all home games for the domestic cup and internationally, until the end of the 2001-2002 football season. Why Italian planning is worth studying, Italian Journal of Planning Practice 1(1): 4-32. The interiors of the Juventus’ new stadium that will be inaugurated on September 6th have been designed by Pininfarina. 1989. These laws played an important role in the economic and political transformation of Italian cities, as they placed the city (. Regime Politics: Governing Atlanta, 1946–1988. 2017. Studying the Chicago case, Smith (2010) proposes a triangular frame involving the city, the state and a special purpose authority, within which urban politics evolves. A scheme of cooperation through which the members of the governing coalition align their contribution to the task of governing. While FIAT’s role in the development of Turin was a leading one, the company’s decline due the economic crisis of the 1970s and 1980s, rendered municipal authorities unable to keep up with the demand for local welfare and social services support at the time (Burdett, 2010). Pinson’s (2012) study suggests that the traditional relationship between the French central state and local political actors is becoming inappropriate, giving way to the mode of governance suggested by URT. They brought huge financial resources to the city, contributing decisively to the first axis of Turin’s strategic plan - infrastructure. This article examines the local politics around a new private football stadium construction project in Southern Europe, within the frame of urban regime theory. It is a fact that, before the 1990's, FIAT was in a conflictual status with Turin's communist government (Locke 1995; Pinson 2002). Architect Giorgio Migliavacca conceded to this view: The public administration (Comune, Provincia, Regione) basically wanted to come to an agreement with Juventus because the “Continassa-area” (where the stadium is located) was a strategic area but also problematic (large area not controlled) so …they can be considered also as “allies” because their aim was to modernise that area...the goal of Juventus was to use the area for its economical profit, Juventus had other allies with potential interests in the project, using either economic or cognitive resources - that include experience, intelligence, competence and task-relevant knowledge. European governments may or may not have a strong voice in the politics of downtown city development, where coalitions may be emerging through different bargaining processes. Stone himself (1989 p. 41) notes: The actions of ten or more official bodies had to be coordinated for urban renewal to proceed: the state government and the state voting public that approved the changes in the Georgia constitution and laws to allow urban renewal. With this evidence in hand, the key questions for future research should be conducted on the impact of financial challenges and constrictions on municipalities and how those challenges might sway them to seek resources from business and social spheres in order to accomplish their goal. This activity does not constitute membership in a regime, which as Stone (1989) instructs, is an informal cooperative arrangement that stays steady over long periods of time… ...expanding regime theory to include such state-level entry into local development coalitions would reflect what Mossberger and Stoker (2001) identify as parochialism within the regime literature. References. , 16: 46-47. The resources all these actors contributed with included not only money but also skills, expertise, informal contacts, etc. There were reports of bodies and associations, but it is FIAT that decides what the mayor of Turin will do. structure’ problem. This activity does not constitute membership in a regime, which as Stone (1989) instructs, is an informal cooperative arrangement that stays steady over long periods of time… ...expanding regime theory to include such state-level entry into local development coalitions would reflect what Mossberger and Stoker (2001) identify as parochialism within the regime literature. In addition, the central government dictated regional and local affairs, as both regional governors and mayors were political appointees. Juventus fans had never warmed up to Delle Alpi though, with most complaints involving the distance between stands and pitch, poor sightlines and lack of atmosphere.

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